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Diabetes Care


Lein has enhanced the confocal measurement technology to analyse non-invasively the absorption and distribution of pharmaceutical drugs within the human body without the need to draw blood. This is achieved by using a second channel in our confocal system that can track the diffusion of a drug using its optical fingerprint.

Diagnosing Physiological Conditions Via The Eye

Lein is applying its experience in optics, ophthalmology and medical devices to develop new technologies that can examine physical attributes of the body. The primary advantage is that the method used is non-invasive and there is no need to draw blood to take a measurement - so there is no pain for the patient and greater ease of use for the point of care professional.

Leinís technology works first by shining a low power beam of light into the eye, then analyses the reflected signal. This gives not only direct information on the structure of the eye but also on the health of the body. The eye, often called the "window to the soul", is in practice the window to your health.

Durham University Collaboration

For many years Lein has collaborated with Durham University who have extensive expertise in optical measurements on the body. Initially via an EPSRC CASE award studentship but more recently through a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP), Leinís technology has been adapted to the non-invasive detection and monitoring of pharmaceutical drugs, both in the eye and through the skin.

The results of this work can be seen in the following publications:

Tracking opthalmic drugs in the eye using confocal fluorescence microscopy

Citation : Kim K. ButtenschŲn, John M. Girkin and Daniel J. Daly, Proc.SPIE 8214, Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems X, 821403 (February 9, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.906 SPIE Digital Library.

Measurement and quantification of fluorescent changes in ocular tissue using a novel confocal instrument

Building on this work Lein and Durham have also developed meters for assessing skin roughness:

Non-invasive assessment of skin roughness through speckle pattern analysis

And in conjunction with Heriot-Watt University have assessed cataracts in the eye:

Tryptophan and non-tryptophan fluorescence of the eye lens proteins provides diagnostics of cataract at the molecular level.

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